As per usual on Twitter, a link to an interesting blog post was doing the rounds recently on refactoring. The post was titled “Stop Refactoring and Start Factoring” and it tackled the issue of how much effort you put into the design of your code so that it best portrays your understanding of the problem. I felt that his beef was with the interpretation around “the simplest thing that could possibly work” and how some programmers might choose to put less effort into the initial design and leave it until a refactoring phase later to try and refine the design then. Of course by then the original programmer might have left and so you are left with two jobs - understanding their half-baked design first and then making the change the customer wants.
Martin Fowler’s book on Refactoring was written a long time ago (1999) and I think any interpretation needs to be done within the historical context that surrounded software development back then. Enterprise software in particular has a reputation of being largely “write-once” - changes were made by doing the smallest possible edits - no attempt was made to improve the design at the same time. I believe Fowler’s book was a call-to-arms to try and change the culture of software development so that systems got the TLC they deserved over their entire lifetime - not just the initial development put into version 1.0.
My understanding of refactoring, and TDD for that matter, has never been to put off ensuring that the design always best reflects my understanding of the problem as it exists today. Doing that - leaving the design as sub-optimal - is what we class as Technical Debt. Consequently I’ve always mentally inserted a hyphen into the word “refactoring” as what I believe changes when I come back to a piece of code is the enhanced clarity of the problem. As such what I’m doing when re-factoring is really just doing the factoring I would have done in the first place, if I had known then, what I know now.
If we apply the prime directive from the retrospective process that suggests developers are always doing their best work, and assuming that any conscious sub-standard work is recorded formally as technical debt, then that really just leaves developer ability. Perhaps what the author was really getting at is the lack of development skill to go that extra mile and create a more beautifully crafted design. For example, in my post “Primitive Domain Types - Too Much Like Hard Work?” I lamented the apparent ease with which the simpler choice of using primitive types gets taken instead of creating your own constrained domain types. This kind of behaviour though may not be a conscious decision from the developer if they have not worked in an environment where that design technique has been used. Sadly I suspect the realm of “Unconscious Incompetence” remains far too dominant within many programmers because the drive is for knowledge of tools and technologies , which can be easily purchased via the training budget, rather than the more craftsman-like skills that come from mixing with “the right sort”.
Or maybe not. Perhaps my interpretation of refactoring is far too liberal and he sees too many others taking it far too literally. It wouldn’t be the first time this has happened .
 I freely hold my hand up as once believing that that was what was important. Maybe not exclusively but in retrospect I now question my original choice of priorities.
 Design Patterns for one. For me they have always been about vocabulary - a means to communicate an idea without having to go into all the gory details. As time has passed (20 years, phew!) the implementation details in the book have aged, but the language still lives on.